History of hunting

As a kind of sport, hunting is getting more and more popular. It has developed from a way of collecting food in ancient times to a pastime. It seems that many people who go hunting for a few times are addicted to this fascinating sport. Hunting is favoured not only for its rules but also for its history with a lot of changes through years


Hunting is the act of capturing, killing or just chasing animals. People who go hunting are called hunters. They use skills and necessary tools to make their hunt more efficient. Mammals and birds are the most hunted for food, recreation and trade. Hunting is different from the word “poaching”, which is used to indicate the practice of hunting illegally. This is an advantageous action, but it is also disadvantageous in some cases. For instance, hunting advocates believe that it is a means of pest control. Specifically, it helps to maintain the population of  beneficial species by destroying their predators. On the other side, however, hunting contributes to the extinction of many species. In spite of this, hunting has nowadays become a part of life after such a long period of development.

Stone Age

Our ancestors Hominid were probably omnivores or frugivores, so the appearance of hunting is believed to have dated from the rise of Homo sapiens. According to evidence from Western Kenya, human started hunting as long as two million years ago. Our ancient ancestors used to pick up fruits and leaves to eat and drink water in streams. It is said that with the awareness of using tools, they gradually knew how to use tree branches to kill animals for food. First tools used in hunting were made from wood, then they ground stone to make it sharper. As a result of working for many years, human knew how to produce metal tools in order to kill bigger animals. Further more, although there is also evidence that human played a significant role in the extinction of Holocene mega-fauna, hunting is regarded as one of factors leading to this.

history of hunting

Middle Ages

One interesting period in history of hunting is middle ages. Those days animal domestication became relatively common, hunting was not the main way of collecting food but a food source in addition to what people produced themselves. Human not only hunted mammals in nature but also knew how to raise some species for survival. Hunting served to kill animals that prey on both domestic and wild animals or to extirpate animals which they regarded as competition for resources like water or ensilage. In the change of hunting from a subsistence to a social activity, there were two trends emerging:

  • The development of specialist hunters with training and dedicated equipment.
  • The co-option of hunting as a sport for upper social class.

This is also the time when hunting was a vital part in life of many people, though restricted. First restriction such as the rule of no hunting in the forest of the King was put into practice. Only the rich and the upper class were allowed to hunt whatever they could. Hunting became primary sport for the nobility of that time. They could go hunting in certain areas which were solely under their control. There were also games of hunting to get food or furs in those areas. Colonists to the New World requires hunters to have as many skills of hunting as possible, although they progressed quickly from relying on hunting to creating farms and plantations. Popular weapons for use in hunting during this time period was forms of archery, slings and throwing spears. The gun was also used but it was not really as popular as today.

Industrial period

Following the Middle Ages was the Industrial period. This era lasted for a significantly long time. Industrialization as well as the globalization brought about great changes in hunting. Large farms became very popular, where livestock was raised instead of the practice of hunting wild animals. This downgraded hunting to only become a past time. Guns, ranging from muskets to rifles, were being to be used extensively. Archery was downgraded to sport use only, though it was very popular for tests of skill.

Present day

Through so many years, hunting has changed a lot in both its rules and its tools. People more and more produce better material to use in hunting. Guns have evolved the same way, with many types of bullets and guns for different types of hunting.

In the modern world, safety and skill are the prerequisited for hunting. Regulations have been developed to prevent species from going extinct. Hunting is still popular, although there are much more restrictions in areas of hunting than before.

In brief, hunting is one of the sports which undergone the longest period of history. Hunting revolutionized from an action of searching food to a pastime of aristocracies and then a popular sport among people, especially for men.

Methods of hunting

Hunting is not only a way of getting food but it also a sport favoured by many people. It is true to say that the development of hunting comes as a result of changing methods. There are more and more different methods of hunting practiced by hunters. They not only used the necessary skills and their experience but they also use chemicals to trap the prey.

Historical, subsistence, and sport hunting techniques can differ radically. Technique variation may depend on government regulations, a hunter’s personal ethics, local custom, hunting equipment, and the animal being hunted. Often a hunter will use a combination of more than one technique.

method of hunting


This is the method in which hunters use decoys, scent,lures for food to feed the animals. It is usually used to hunt animals such as deer, dog and bear. Bait is a food or other lure put in a trap in order to poison the prey. However, this method has been banned on some kinds of animals like bear.


It is said that battue originates from ancient times while our ancients went hunting. Hunters scare animals, sometimes they use sticks or weapon into a killing zone which has created in advance to capture or kill them more easily. There are large holes that hunters prepare to scare animals into. At the bottom there are some kinds of traps such as huge nets to capture a large number of animals or wooden sticks which are sharpened to kill or injure them. This method requires hunters to have preparation before going hunting. Also, people who use this method not only  have to have skills so as to scare animals into the right direction to the hole but they also make a right decision of where to become the killing zone.

Using dogs

Dogs are used to find, chase, retrieve, and sometimes to kill the animals. Hunting dogs allow humans to pursue and kill prey that would otherwise be very difficult or dangerous to hunt. Different breeds of dogs are used for different types of hunting like the Labrador Retriever, the Brittany Spaniel or the Golden Retriever . To become hunting dogs, they have to be trained carefully in many aspects like running, scenting, chasing and so on. This is one of the popular ways for hunters when they want to hunt the dangerous animals or the ones which can run so fast that people can not chase. This methods requires hunting dogs to be trained as well as possible. Prerequisite for them is to understand the wild game, including what to do when being ordered by the appearance of the preys. After that these dogs will be trained on other skills while hunting like the special scent of animals to easily orientate the preys.


Stalking or still hunting is to walk quetly and wait for animal to appear individually to easily hunt. This method does not require many skills but hunters have to know how to stay still in searching for animals. Preys of this type of hunting are usually young animals which are not able to run persistently or the ones straying from their herds. It is always easier to hunt a single animal but as a result, hunters can not hunt in large number like when using some other methods. Similarly, blind hunting or stand hunting is to wait for animals from concealed position. This strategy requires hunters to hide from preys’eyes. They have to stay still in a secret position and watch the animals, then find a suitable time and use the tools to capture the animals.

Aggressive mimicry

Aggressive mimicry is quite popular among hunters and also scientists who want to study more about wild animals. This strategy is a form of mimicry that hunters perform to trick animals into thinking that they are the same species. By this way, hunters can get closer to his prey in order to capture or kill it easily. Using this method, people have to wear fake animal skin and sometimes mimic animals’ behaviours. To use this method, hunters have to know about special behaviours of each species. What is more, they have to micmic as exactly as possible. If not, hunters can be in danger when recognized by animals. They will be attacked if animals realize that hunters are not among their herds but come to hunt.

In general, there are many different hunting strategies used nowadays, the most popular ones include:

  • Baiting
  • Battue
  • Using dogs
  • Stalking
  • Aggressive mimicry

Each method has its own benefits and also drawbacks. The important thing is to choose the suitable one to use in the right case.

Getting the Perfect Scope for Your Gun

There are many reasons to buy a best rifle scope that is very helpful to shoot more accurately, faster, longer ranges, recovery, and better target identification and range estimation. There are some things which are most important to consider before buying a scope such as power setting, price, durability, adjustments, reticle, the illuminated reticles, and objective size.

Power setting of scope:

for what purpose you are looking a scope? Are you wanted to shoot a deer 100 yards away?  Are you wanted for targeting or gaming? If you now require seeing the target what the distance a power location on more than 10-14x for nearer distances will do.  It is best to see the target perfectly you can place the crosshairs. You can use the lower caliber rifles a 4 or 6 power that is top bet due to shorter maximum efficient best short range scope.

Durability of scope:

You scope that you have decide to buy must necessary to do some test with its adjustments. You can shoot a square with it. You can do two or more shoot for testing procedure to check its durability. You must pay attention toward scope screws that should tight. You should feel and hear a click while you rotating the adjustments knobs.

Prices for scope:

there are many scopes that are anywhere from $100 to unlimited  price range.  There are some people who say they you should spend on your scope as for rifle. There are plenty of products are available in each price range. You have free region to decide on price range that you want to purchase and its features that are suitable for you.


Best adjustment of scope:

Many scopes that are available in the market that needs to use tools in order to make adjustments form one yard line to the other. You can try the ¼ MOA, ½ MOA and 1 MOA that is addition in increments after that there are scopes that have bullet drop compensators. If you want to put it on 5 for 500 yards and then shoot it is easier and speedily than detection 14 minutes up from 0. Most people like with ¼ MOA increments for the perfect accuracy.

Numerous reticles out are available:

There are numerous reticles out are available such as cross hairs, mildot, duplex and other most ordinary. You can also use the Gen 2 Mildot that is best due to having a center ½ mil reading accurately line.  The mildot reticle is best and utilizing by the military for many years. They are very usable for more than just range estimation. You can hold in wind and elevation because it is best in this situation and it can be used for moving targets.

The illuminated reticles:

You can use the illuminated reticle that is best for use. If you cannot see the crosshairs in low light, there are a lot of companies that make them and light up the center with a dot or now the center and some light up the entire reticle. You can use the night vision scopes. But before purchasing make sure that is it a day or night scope? And it has an illuminated reticle. The night vision devices are best to wash out when there is ambient light on or close to the target. In the case of using the day scope always use the ILR. If you are using the scope with batteries you must ensure that you have extras with your rifle.

Larger objective lens is perfect:

If it is getting dark the crosshairs inside a larger objective lens is perfect to be observable longer. It is bigger so it raises the scope up over the barrel upper so you will require higher rings and a higher cheek pieces. The bigger lens the extra field of view you have in addition to the lower power the better field of view.

History of water sports

Doing sport has become common in many countries all over the world. People do sports daily but it seems that there are few of them know about history of sports, which is always worth exploring.

One form of sport is water sports. All the recreational activities that involve water are called water sports. It includes 3 categories divided on the base of the relation of each to water: in the water, on the water and under the water. Beyond the benefits water sports bring to players, there are a lot of interesting information about its history.

water sport

In the water

Many people are fascinated by water, they want to dip in the water to feel the cool water currents touching their skin or to relax with the gentleness of water. Generally speaking, this ty pe includes swimming, snorkeling, water polo, aquajogging. As for swimming, for example, it is considered to have appeared very long time ago. Archaeologists 10000 year-old rock paintings of people swimming in Southwestern Egypt. Besides, the most famous drawing that depicts the breaststroke was found in the Kebir desert. Not only references in paintings but also written documents dating from 2000 BC indicate the existence of swimming since ancient times. It is shown that from 850 BC swimmers often used swimming aids. In addition to this, the German professor Nikolaus Wynmann wrote the swimming book called Colymbetes in 1539 in order to reduce the dangers of drowning. In brief, swimming is one of the oldest sports in the world.

On the water

This type is also known as surface watersport, including activities performed atop a body of water: boating, surfing, fishing, canoeing, canoe polo, water skiing,… Like swimming, surfing is one the oldest practiced sports on the planet. Over 3 thousand years ago, the act of riding waves first appeared in Western Polynesia. Fishermen were the first sufers when they rode water to get to shore with their catch. Eventually, catching waves revolutionized from a part of everyday work to a pastime. In ancient Hawiian’s tradition, surfing is not merely a recreational activity, a hobby or a sport but an art integrated into their culture. By the turn of the 20th century, Hawaiians inhabiting near Waikiki began to revive surfing and re-established it as a sport. Another popular surface water sport is canoe polo, also known as Kayak polo. In 1875, the London Charivarl published a picture showing men and women in bathing costumes were standing on flat topped, double-hulled vessels, competing for the ball. They used doubled bladed paddles. In the 1920s, polo was played as an introduction to canoeing and a means to build river skills. It provided an interesting introduction: challenging, safe and close to home. In 1970, the first national canoe polo. Committee was formed, which developed the sport as we see today.

Under the water

Many people like to explore the world deep in the water, which is always a great mystery for both scientists and explorers. With a viewing to satisfying people’s curiosity about marine life, many sports played under the water were developed. This category of water sport include diving, underwater football, spearfishing, underwater hockey, underwater rugby…Diving is a sport which has changed a lot through years. Together with its changing process, there are many things in its history for people to know. As early as the beginning of human existence, men in many ways entered the water to collect food, so the exact date as well as origin of diving has remained unknown. Neverthless, it is possible to trace the history of diving by means of events recorded. In 1895, the Graceful diving competition was instituted with the tests of standing and running dives from 15 to 30 feet. In the late 1890s, it was in London where fancy diving was introduced. This type of diving was first included in competition in 1903. The ASA has taken responsibility for Championships and also other matters concerning diving since 1936. Through many years of changing and developing in technology as well as rules, diving nowadays has become a popular leisure activity. It helps people not only to relax but also get more knowledge about the underwater world.
In general, every categories of water sports have overgone many years of revolution to become what they are today. If someone is really keen on any of them, there are such a lot of things for him to explore, including its history.

Benefits of playing outdoor table tennis

Nowadays, people have spent much more time on doing sports than they used to do. One of the most favourable sports of ages is table tennis. It can be played both indoors and outdoors. Like other outdoor activities, outdoor table tennis gives players a lot of benefits as follows.

table tennis

More space

One of the first things to be mentioned about playing table tennis outdoors when compared with indoors is that it provides players with a huge space. People play sports mostly for recreation, they want to relieve stress after working. As a result, playing sports in restricted areas is counter-productive, making people feel even more stressed. Similarly, it would be better to play table tennis outside your house. A rec room is commonly used to play a ping pong set. However, the room is not always large enough for players to move freely. Besides, it is likely that the ball hits the ceiling, or the racquet slaps into the wall. In contrast, people have larger space to move and practice skills when playing outdoor table tennis.

Contribution to the game’s effect

People usually play table tennis in a rec room. This is not bad but it does not mean that there is no disadvantage. Playing sports requires strong movements. Consequently, if people play ping pong in a space restricted by walls, they will sweat and feel uncomfortable. This affects players ‘psychology in a bad way. In addition to that, many people like to play table tennis in a room with air-conditioner running so as not to sweat. Air-conditioner may help, but it can ruin the game. The currents of air affect the ball’s movements and as a result, player can miss one point. Meanwhile, playing outdoor table tennis means that you do sport in such a clear environment, which never restricts creativity. Consequently, playing table tennis outdoors helps you practice better. It is the space in which people do sports that partially contributes to the success of the game. The more comfortable players feel, the better they play.

A way of strengthening health

It is common knowledge that people would be better off exposing to sunlight in a proper way. This means people regardless of age should take outdoor activities as much as possible. Sunlight helps to boost the vitamin D supply in the body, leading to the development if bones. As a result of the new age, people have spent too much time at work, school and even their homes nowadays. They interact with artificial equipment and power more than with nature. It is true to say that things like air-conditioners, lamps,…are convenient, but they are not as good for your health as natural environment. This is the reason why people should play sports, specifically table tennis, outdoors. It i not sensible to do sports indoors after working hard in places surrounded by walls.

A wide range of areas

The last thing to be listed as an advantage of playing outdoor table tennis is that it offers players many places to choose. Obviously, when playing ping pong indoors, people do not have many choices. Outdoor table tennis, however, puts the choice of area at players’ disposal. They can play table tennis anywhere they like. It can be a yard in front of the house, river bank, in the park or in the garden, providing that the place is suitable and players have dedicated equipment.

As a whole, playing outdoor table tennis brings a lot of benefits. It is not only the objective factor contributing to the success of the game but it also provides players with good conditions. Consequently, people should play table tennis as an outdoor activity.

Tips for party at your restaurant

Perfect management and your care can make the party perfect:

If there is arranged part about any dinner, New Year etc in your restaurant. You should manage all the necessary things for the party in your restaurant. Your perfect management and your full of care can make the party perfect which is very best for the reputation of your restaurant and will attract the more customers to come there and arrange parties.

party at restaurant

Manage the all responsibilities about party:

If you manage the all responsibilities about party and all important necessaries for the party with very efficiently and in nice manner that you will be succeed to make good reputations of your restaurant among peoples. This is great for your business if someone come in the hotel and he or she found everything perfect and according to his or her needs. This is best and nice to increase your sales.

Important tips for party in your restaurant:

Here are some very important tips to manage the all parties in your restaurant will full responsibility.

  • Ask about all requirements from the customer before taking order:
    If you are dealing with the parties in your restaurant, it is very important and necessary for your business to ask about all requirements of customers that how many dishes they want? How many people are involved in the party? And brief description of chairs, tables and decorations regarding the party. Your staff should make list and mention every order with complete detail at that paper. There for they can remember different orders and their details and necessaries. They should no mix up the order it will throw bad effects at the reputation of your restaurant. By preparing list with detail is very helpful for the management of restaurant. Your staff should quickly complete every order and provide all things about the party which is mention in the order before customers asking.
  • Your full attention and great management:
    Your full attention and great management will take you at the top of business and will increase the good will among customers. If you don’t work accurately and don’t monitor all order with its detail will throw bad effects at your business as well as the reputations of your restaurant.
  • Maintain communication between the customers and staff:
    You should maintain the very effective and efficient communication between customers and staff of restaurant particularly during dealing with large parties. If someone place order at your restaurant then your staff should complete it in short time so that customer will take a long wait for their orders. The efficiency about good communication with your customer will always give you good outcomes. So if you are taking order about party then your staff should communicate with customers with carefully and don’t behave in odd manner.
  • Encourage your staff to complete orders carefully:
    If some time you face the troubles of more orders in your restaurant at the same time. It is very difficult to manage such kind of problem so remain calm and encourage your staff to complete orders carefully. But restaurant staff should provide everything with great efficiency and accurately without missing any item. They don’t misunderstand or mix up the different orders. Your management is very necessary to fulfill all orders successfully in time to the all customers. To handling such kind of trouble your all staff should be trained for these issues. You should give the practice of your staff and should give the experience to handle this pressure of serving and fulfilling large orders of the customers at the same time.


If there is large party in your restaurant then it is important to prepare and encourage the all staff to become efficient and ready to do work accurately. You should arrange the best table size, charis and location for large party and it should reserve for the party so that new arrival should not face any kind of inconvenience and disturbance. You should monitor the all dishes which are included in the order. If there are many orders so take care about different dishes and keep them separately for every order. All dishes should cook deliciously and should present with very stylish manner to attract your customers as well as gaining the fair reputation for your restaurant. You should pat proper attention to all customers in the restaurant during party. You should monitor in strict manner. That every order is filling or not. Some time the staff of restaurant ignore the other customers when they fulfilling the order of party. It is not fair policy. Don’t ignore your customer. Your staff should completely aware of the needs of other present customers in the restaurant. If you neglect your customer it will create the bad reputation of your restaurant.

Finding a good seafood restaurant

Seafood has always been many people choice for reasonable priced delicacy. If you are in the mood to indulge in seafood goodness but are not comfortable with cooking yourself, you can have a choice of many restaurants. This choice will depend on your taste, your budget, the type of restaurant you want and how far willing you are to go for great food.


How to find the best restaurant

In my opinion, the best restaurant should be one that is in your area so you don’t need to drive too far. It should offer great service, great food, and a nice atmosphere. You might want to get your friends and family opinion on the restaurant before trying it. Social media is also a good choice for finding good place to eat with many reviews and pictures of the place, together with careful instruction such as the address and opening hours, menu and costs, etc.

An important thing when it comes to seafood, well for food in general is that you should know the origin of the materials. The server should be able to tell you where the foods come from and the type of fish you’re ordering. You can ask when the fish was catch to determine its freshness. Some restaurant let you pick live fish from a tank, which is a better guarantee for its quality.

Remember that sometimes you can decide how the fish will be prepared. So if the restaurant allows it, you can actually tell the server to fry or steam the dish based on your reference.
Medical conditions
It may sound ridiculous but a wide percent of people are allergic to something and the most popular allergy is with seafood. If you are allergic to certain type of seafood, be sure to mention it to your server. However if you don’t know whether you are allergic or not, it’s the safest choice to have medical kits around in case of an allergic reaction happens.

How to eat seafood

Yes it can be embarrassing when you struggle to open your crab shell or trying to suck a scallop meat out of its shell. Feel free to ask the people around you how to do those things. Restaurants usually provided tools to crack crabmeat and other utensils for eating shell animal dishes.

If you are eating crab or peeling shrimp you will need a bowl of water and a towel to wash your hands (some restaurant put slices of lemon into it). Ask for one if your server forgets or a new one if the water gets too dirty.

You can request the leftover to be taken home as well. There is nothing wrong with doing this. You paid for the food so it’s a normal thing to do and restaurants anticipated this actually.

Which occasion to go to a seafood restaurant

Most people don’t eat seafood often, only once a week if most frequent. So when the time comes for an anniversary or celebrations and you don’t want to get dirty by rolling in the kitchen, take the time out to go to a restaurant for a fine dining experience. There are many types of restaurant suitable for every occasion: casual dining restaurant for the whole family, a small seaside restaurant for a romantic date, a private high class room for a business meeting, etc. There are many places where you can go to have good food. My recommendation is, if you are in the mood for adventure; pick a restaurant far and new. But if it’s a business meeting, go to ones you already know and make sure the atmosphere is formal and somewhat quiet so you can discuss what you need to.

Types of Restaurant

Owning a business is a dream for almost everyone. One of the most popular businesses for startups is working in the food serving market, more commonly known as opening a restaurant. Figuratively speaking, according to the Entrepreneur website, the number of food-service grew from about 155,000 to about 900,000 between the late 1970s and 2009. This number is expected to continue to grow because nowadays people rather eating outside than taking the effort to cook at home. Opening a restaurant, however, isn’t an easy ride. Let’s say you caught a cold but can’t help but getting up, roll up your sleeves and cook for people.

In this article, I will walk you through the factors that make or break a restaurant as well as the types of restaurant and draw out the tips to establishing a restaurant.

types of restaurant

Factors to consider

  • Concept and target market
    The target market you choose will decide your restaurant’s concept. Not one business has succeeded in covering all range of customers. You should design a menu that caters to a specific group of customers, e.g. do you want to serve high class customers or the whole family, etc. The menu should also be something that you have knowledge and passion for. Decide on your dishes price; compare them to the price of other restaurants and figuring out your selling points.
  • Location and timing
    Now with a concept of your restaurant in mind, let’s look for a place to set it up. At this point, what you want to do is take a tour to the real estate offices and setting an appointment to get a tour of the properties. Have fun on the trip, because it is still a long way from your opening day. Remember to pick a neighbourhood where it would be advantageous to set up your restaurants: is there any competition; what do the people in that place refer, cooking or eating out; is there any supplier in the area, what is the cost for fresh ingredients. You might want to take note on the cost for gas, lighting, garbage and the sewer system. Remember that you need to keep you restaurant clean and hygiene. You will need to visit several places to find the right fit for you.
  • Budget and resources
    For this step you will need a calculator or a friend who is really good with number.
    Think about how much you have and what you can afford. Prioritize. Do not ever you’re your budget plan on plain white paper! It’s hard to edit and easy to make mistake. You’d want to utilize Excel table and formulas. Make list of all the information you have gathered and construct them in a weekly or monthly format to easier calculate your spending. Next multiply all these number by 1.5 because chances are in the first few months things won’t run how you want them to and this extra amount will make up for the lost and well as price increases in the future.
    Now let’s not forget your staffs’ salary and the price for each dish. Take the total budget you have minus the cost for housing, ingredient, equipment and staff salary. Take that number divide by the price for each dish and that is how many customer you have to serve to keep you business running. If any of these numbers is unrealistic, adjust your budget plan accordingly.

Types of restaurant

  • Ethnic: Restaurants that specialize in national or ethnic cuisine. E.g. Chinese food or Italian food.
  • Fast food: As the name suggest, this type of restaurant service food on the go with emphasize on speed. Fast food restaurants are well known for being franchise but a family owe fast food restaurant is possible too.
  • Casual dining: Fun for the whole family! This type is a mix between fast food and fine dining. Food can be served by order but there is also an open bar with side dishes to choose from.
  • Family style: A variant from casual dining. Food is served in big trays and the diners serve themselves.
  • Fine dining: These restaurants have a set menu dishes with some other choices that changes by day. The choices are fewer compare to other types of restaurant. Popular for business talk and formal meetings. There is also a dress code that diners have to follow.

Tips relevant to restaurant

  • Talk to locals about your restaurant before the opening.
  • Restaurants are built to make profit, not to be romantic or creative.
  • Take every tiny detail into your budget plan.
  • Expect the unexpected.
  • Work on your leadership because the staff will be people you haven’t worked with before.